Here is an interesting piece of research from Castrol to identify the critical EV Challenges and conditions to be met in conjunction for mass EV adoption:
1) price : <30 k€
2) net charge time: <31 minutes
3) effective range: > 469 km
Let’s translate this in battery terms. Assuming 20 kWh/100km average consumption on motorways, 10% to 80% charging, 160 Wh/kg (at pack level) and 130 €/kwh (at pack level):
a) battery capacity (net) = 469/100*20/70% = 134 kWh (!)
b) net average charging power = 134*70%/31*60 = 181 kW (!)
c) battery impact on the weight of the car: 837 kg pack + 30% on chassis = 1 088 kg (!)
d) battery cost = 17 400 € + 50 % taxes, overhead, sales and margin = 26 k€ (!)
Challenging indeed ! 10% battery progress per annum won’t suffice and it is silly to carry such large batteries and significant life cycle impact for rare long distance trips.
EP Tender provides the solution with a smart powerbank trailer, which is added or swapped in 2′ (driver behind the wheel) with a truly mass market EV.
All conditions are then solved to address the « price, charge time and range combined $376BN » opportunity.